Dreaming

Corroborree by W. Preston

This is a one page version of the Virtual Sourcebook for Aboriginal Studies in the Hunter Region site listing all sources from 1791 to the present. It was originally created to assist the Awaba project, a collaborative venture by the University of Newcastle’ s School of Liberal Arts and the Wollotuka School of Aboriginal Studies. The original brief was to digitise the works of Reverend Lancelot Threlkeld, but we continued to identify materials from the collections relating to Aboriginal people throughout Newcastle and the wider Hunter Region. Due to the assistance of scholars and members of the local indigenous and non indigenous community the site grew rapidly to include many hundreds of sources. We hope that this will lead to a better understanding and respect of the richness and beauty of the Aboriginal view.

The following documents are mostly in PDF format. If you do not already have it, you will need to download and install the free Adobe Acrobat reader to view these files. If you are having trouble viewing the files through your web browser try downloading the document to your computer. This is done by right mouse-clicking on the link and then choose ‘Save Target As’. Then, pick a location on your computer and click ‘OK’. The files will be downloaded to your computer. Please bear in mind that some are large files, and so may take some time to download depending upon your connection.

Acknowledgements

Thank you to the following individuals, groups and institutions who have been an inspiration and/or kindly helped in locating and providing these resources for research (in alphabetical order): The Aboriginal Support Group, Dr Glenn Albrecht, Leah Armstrong, The Australian Dictionary of Biography, Kerrie Brauer, Dr Helen Brayshaw, Viola Brown, The Cooksey Family, Vera Deacon, Len Dyall, Geoffrey Eric Ford, Shane Frost, Professor John Fryer, Margaret Fryer, Niel Gunson, The Newcastle Herald, Nola Hawken, John Heath, Jack Horner, Brian Laut, Maaiangal Ngura (Clan) of the Worimi Nation, Macquarie University, John Maynard, Rosemary Melville, Mitchell Library, David Moore, Les Murray, Newcastle & Hunter District Historical Society, Newcastle Region Art Gallery, Oxford University Press, Bobby Paquet, Mrs Marjorie Raven, Greg Ray, Carol Ridgeway-Bissett, David Roberts, Denis Rowe, Mike Scanlon, Boris Sokoloff, State Library of New South Wales, Bruce Turnbull, Jim Wafer, Col Whitehead.

For an introduction to the historical materials relating to the Aboriginal people of the Newcastle/Lake Macquarie region, see the Awaba project , prepared by the University’s School of Liberal Arts and the Wollotuka School of Aboriginal Studies.

Gionni Di Gravio
University Archivist
Cultural Collections
(formerly Archives, Rare Books & Special Collections)


1791

James Martin (fl.1786 – 1792) Memorandoms: Escape from Botany Bay, 1791 : being ‘Memorandoms’ by James Martin ; introduction and notes by Victor Crittenden (Canberra : Mulini Press, c1991 ). Transcribed excerpt from p.2-3 relating to natives. [Virtual Coquun-Hunter River Site]

In 1791 a group of nine convicts and two small children escaped from the settlement at Sydney Cove. They successfully managed to avoid capture in a leaky boat before arriving in Timor, where they were arrested and re-imprisoned. Of the three accounts of the voyage known to exist, only one has ever come to light. It was the account attributed to James Martin, entitled ‘Memorandoms’. The writer(s) records the journey of the escapees up the coast to Swansea and later to what is possibly either Newcastle or (more likely) Port Stephens.


1795

See Henry William Hemsworth Huntington’s account relating to conflict with the Port Stephen Natives in 1795.

See Henry William Hemsworth Huntington’s account relating to Captain Broughton’s discovery of four runaway convicts during his survey of Port Stephens in 1795 and their experiences with the natives.


1796

See Henry William Hemsworth Huntington’s account relating to quarrels between the Newcastle Blacks and fishermen in 1796.

See Henry William Hemsworth Huntington’s article relating to Collin’s Diary account of meeting between fishermen and Port Stephens Aboriginals, friendly disposition of the Newcastle Natives and the search for the “Wild White Woman”.


1797

Lieutenant John Shortland “An Eye Sketch of Hunter’s River”. Two photographic copies of a plan dated 1797. Signed L.S. [initials presumed to be those of Lieutenant John Shortland]. A copy is held in the University Archives at Shelf Location A6472 (iii) Original is held in the Hydrographic Department. Ministry of Defence, Taunton, Somerset, United Kingdon: C642/1 Lieutenant John Shortland of the H.M.S. Reliance officially ‘discovered’ the Hunter River on the 10th September 1797 while on route to Port Stephens. Please click above to view a more accurate version of “An Eye Sketch of Hunter’s River” that contains sightings of natives in the vicinity.


1799

See Henry William Hemsworth Huntington’s account relating to Quarter-Master Hacking and his punishment of the Newcastle Blacks in 1799.

See The Cyclopedia of N.S.W. (1907) account of the 1799 conflict between Aborigines and crews of colliers reported to Governor Hunter, who sent Mr A. Hacking to investigate.

See Henry William Hemsworth Huntington’s account relating to role of King Bungaree in the early settlement of Newcastle.


1801

Grant’s Voyage to Hunter’s River

In June 1801 Governor King sent an exploration party to the Hunter’s River led by Lieutenant Grant and Lieutenant-Colonel Paterson. Their mission was to report on “where the most eligible place would be to form a settlement, both with respect to procuring coals and for agricultural purposes”. Their report informed the Governor of the alluvial flats as being “a very fit situation for forming a settlement for the cultivation of grain or grazing”. They also reported on the presence of oyster shells along the beaches as well as good quality timber along the river. A small party were left behind to mine the coal at the present site of Newcastle, but due to the misconduct of a commanding officer the small settlement that had been working the seams was abandoned in 1802. Among their reports are observations of Aboriginal people.

Note: When reading the following accounts from Grant’s voyage please be aware that they confused the rivers with one another and “regarded the Williams as the main stream and refer to it as the Hunter in their reports. The Hunter upstream from its confluence with the Williams they named the Paterson. Although the confluence of the (present) Paterson and Hunter was shown on their map, they did not explore the Paterson.” (From T.M. Perry Australia’s First Frontier: The Spread of Settlement in New South Wales 1788 – 1829. Melbourne University Press, 1963 p.56 note 8)

14th June 1801. Hunter River. REMARKS, &c., on board His Majesty’s armed surveying vessel, Lady Nelson, in Hunter River, 1801. By LIEUT. GRANT, COMMANDER, H.R.N.S.W., Vol.IV, pp.404 – 409. [Transcription] [Meeting with an elderly native on the 23rd June 1801]

Compare this account with Henry William Hemsworth Huntington’s account relating to meeting aboard the Lady Nelson of Budgerie Dick and King Bungaree in June 1801.

24th June 1801 – Ensign Barrallier to Governor King. (King Papers) Historical Records of New South Wales, V.4 Ed. by F.M. Bladen Sydney, 1896: 413-414. [Transcription and Translation from the French by Emeritus Professor Ken Dutton] Describes the terrific waves around Nobbys and the entrance to the Harbour. He mentions a map (that is now lost) but that could possibly this one recently located by Doug Lithgow in the State Library of NSW.

25th June 1801. Lieutenant-Colonel Paterson to Governor King. (King Papers), H.R.N.S.W., Vol.IV, pp. 414 – 416. [Transcription] [Refers to a native befriended by Barrallier and Grant and brought aboard the Lady Nelson]

25th June 1801 – Surgeon Harris to Governor King. (King Papers) Historical Records of New South Wales, V.4 Ed. by F.M. Bladen Sydney, 1896: 416-418. [Transcription ] [Notes the shyness of the natives]

11th August 1801 Lieut. Colonel Paterson to Governor King (King Papers) Historical Records of New South Wales, V.4 Ed. by F.M. Bladen Sydney, 1896: 447-448. [Transcription] includes Lieutenant – Colonel Paterson’s Journal and Discoveries at Hunter River Historical Records of New South Wales, V.4 Ed. by F.M. Bladen Sydney, 1896: 448-453. [Sighting natives in the vicinity of Ash Island and later, a canoe]

21st November 1801 – Mr M. Mason to Governor King (King papers) Historical Records of New South Wales, V.4 Ed. by F.M. Bladen Sydney, 1896: 627-628. [Transcription ] [Report of meeting 60-70 natives of peaceful disposition, theft of blankets, drinking of spirits.]

11th December 1801 Mr Surveyor Grimes on Hunter’s River Historical Records of New South Wales, V.4 Ed. by F.M. Bladen Sydney, 1896: 634-635. [Transcription ] [Description of the landscape]

See Henry William Hemsworth Huntington’s account relating to Pirate Point Pirates and Natives in 1801.

See Henry William Hemsworth Huntington’s account relating to the Wild Man of the Newcastle Forest.

See Henry William Hemsworth Huntington’s account relating to social intercourse with a Newcastle Chieftain.

See Henry William Hemsworth Huntington’s account relating to Dr Mason’s description of the peaceful nature of the natives.

See Henry William Hemsworth Huntington’s account of Barrallier and Grimes opinion on the hostile nature of the natives, sacred places and native duel on Prospect (Obelisk) Hill.


1802

Barrallier, Francis, 1773-1853. Letter received by Banks from Charles Francis Greville, April 1802 (Series 23.25) Includes Greville’s translation of a letter received by Greville from Francis Barrallier titled `Extract from Ensign Barralliers Letter to Mr Greville’, ca April 1802. [Sir Joseph Banks' Papers] State Library of New South Wales. [Contains a description of the entrance to Hunters River and Patersons River, with descriptions of the Natives seen there.]


1803

Please read Lieutenant James Grant’s account of his visit to Hunter’s River and Ash Island with some general observations of the Aboriginal people (812 KB PDF) from pages 149 -172 in: Grant, James. The narrative of a voyage of discovery, performed in His Majesty’s vessel the Lady Nelson, of sixty tons burthen, with sliding keels, in the years 1800, 1801 and 1802, to New South Wales / by James Grant. To which is prefixed, An account of the origin of sliding keels .. London : Printed by C. Roworth … for T. Egerton … , 1803


1804

Lieutenant Menzies correspondence with Governor King. May – Nov. 1804. from Historical Records of Australia 1, 5: pp.411-425. (1.62 MB PDF) Concerning relations with Aborigines at Newcastle including threats of attack on timber-getters.

See Henry William Hemsworth Huntington’s account relating to struggles between cedar getters and Aboriginals in the Upper Hunter.

See Henry William Hemsworth Huntington’s account relating to use of Aboriginals to catch bushrangers.


1807

Coal River N.S. Wales, 1807 / watercolour by I.W. Lewin. [Courtesy of the State Library of New South Wales PICMAN Database]

Newcastle, 1807 / watercolour by T.R. Browne (1776 – 1824). Watercolour on paper. Photographed by Bruce Turnbull [Courtesy Newcastle Region Art Gallery]

Lewin, J. W. (John William), 1770-1819 Nobby Island from Coal River (1807) (Newcastle Region Library)


1808

See Henry William Hemsworth Huntington’s account relating to double murder committed by Port Stephens native known as “Robert” at Stockton in October 1808.

The Coal River or Port of Newcastle New South Wales … / watercolour drawing possibly by John William Lewin. [Courtesy of the State Library of New South Wales PICMAN Database]


1809

See Henry William Hemsworth Huntington’s account relating to discovery of Telligerry Creek in 1809.


1812

Newcastle, in New South Wales, with a distant view of Point Stephen. 1812 by T.R. Browne (1776 – 1824). Photographed by Bruce Turnbull [Courtesy Newcastle Region Art Gallery]

View of Hunters River, near Newcastle, New South Wales. 1812 by T.R. Browne (1776 – 1824). Photographed by Bruce Turnbull [Courtesy Newcastle Region Art Gallery]


1813

Skottowe, Thomas. The Skottowe manuscript : Thomas Skottowe’s select specimens from nature of the birds, animals, &c. &c. of New South Wales / edited, with an introductory essay, by Tim Bonyhady ; natural history consultant: John Calaby ; foreword by Sir David Attenborough. Sydney : David Ell Press : Hordern House, 1988. Drawings by T.R. Browne.

For a complete set of images from this recently digitised manuscript please click here: http://acms.sl.nsw.gov.au/item/itemDetailPaged.aspx?itemID=423725# [Courtesy of the State Library of New South Wales PICMAN Database]


1816

Joseph Lycett (c1774/75 – 1828) Newcastle, New South Wales, looking towards Prospect Hill. c.1816-1818. [Detail 1] [Detail 2] [Detail 3] A gift by Port Waratah Coal Services to Newcastle Region Art Gallery. Photographed by Bruce Turnbull [Courtesy Newcastle Region Art Gallery]


1818

Oxley to Macquarie. CSIL 4/1814 (1st Nov 1818): 50e. (216 KB PDF)
John Oxley, Surveyor General, reporting on attacks by Aborigines near Port Stephens.

Walter Preston (fl.1811-1820) Newcastle, Hunter’s River, New South Wales. c.1818 -1820 [1.02MB Version] [Detail] Photographed by Bruce Turnbull [Courtesy Newcastle Region Art Gallery]

Walter Preston (fl.1811-1820) Corroboree, or dance of the natives of New South Wales, New Holland c.1818 -1820 Photographed by Bruce Turnbull [Courtesy Newcastle Region Art Gallery]

[Corroboree at Newcastle / oil painting by Joseph Lycett] c.1818 [State Library of New South Wales] [Image ]


1819

Morisset to Campbell. CSIL 4/1807 (4th Jan 1819): 12-12a. (244 KB PDF) Concerning the use of Aboriginal trackers in search parties.

Monthly Returns of Punishments, Newcastle, CSIL Special Bundles 4/1718. (Sept 1819): 89.(57.6 KB PDF) Includes convicts punished for harming Aborigines.


1820

Monthly Returns of Punishments, Newcastle, CSIL Special Bundles 4/1718. (Oct 1820): 115.(127 KB PDF) Includes convicts punished for harming Aborigines.

Morisset to Campbell. CSIL 4/1807 (31st Oct 1820): 135-137. (369 KB PDF) Respecting the convicts John Kirby and James Thompson, and the wounding of Jack, Chief of the Newcastle Tribe.

Morisset to Campbell. CSIL 4/1807 (16th Nov 1820): 143. (260 KB PDF) Respecting the the death of King Burrigan (aka Jack, Chief of the Newcastle Tribe).

A View of King’s Town. (c.1820/1828) Artist Unknown. Photographed by Bruce Turnbull [Courtesy Newcastle Region Art Gallery]

R. v. Kirby and Thompson [1820] NSWKR 11; [1820] NSWSupC 11. John Kirby was the first European in Australian history to be tried, convicted and executed for the murder of an Aboriginal person, in this case Burigon (aka Burragong, King Jack) leader of the Newcastle Tribe.


1821

Monthly Returns of Punishments, Newcastle, CSIL Special Bundles 4/1718. (Aug 1821): 127.(135 KB PDF) Reference to Aboriginal man known as Flathead.

Transcript of Lachlan Macquarie: A Voyage – and Tour of Inspection – from Port Jackson – to the Settlements of Port Macquarie, and Newcastle: – In November 1821. [Macquarie University have created transcriptions of the Journals of Elizabeth and Lachlan Macquarie through the magnificent project entitled Journeys in Time 1809 - 1822.] Mentions meeting with Bungaree, Chief of the Boan Native Tribe, with all his own Family, and 30 more of his Tribe at Wallis’ Plains.


1822

Morriset to Goulburn. 28th July 1822 Colonial Secretary: Letters Received, 1822. SRNSW 4/1808. (1.58 MB PDF) Concerning the settlement further up the Hunter River and the need to protect settlers from Aborigines and bushrangers.

Bigge, John T. excerpt relating to blacktracking and how Aborgines show considerable skill in tracking escaped convicts from Report of the Commissioner of Inquiry into the State of the Colony of New South Wales 19th June 1822. 1:117 (126 KB PDF)

Wylde to Goulburn. CSIL 4/1758 (20th Dec 1822): 145. (135 KB PDF) Regarding Aborigines tried for the murder of MacDonald at Newcastle.

Wylde to Brisbane. CSIL 4/1758 (26th Dec 1822): 146. (93.6 KB PDF) Regarding Aborigines tried for the murder of MacDonald at Newcastle.


1824

R. v. Fitzpatrick and Colville. Supreme Court of New South Wales. Forbes C.J., 21 June 1824. Source: Sydney Gazette, 24 June 1824. Bulwaddy, a black native, was present at some part of the transactions and provided some testimony to the events.[Decisions of the Superior Courts of New South Wales, 1788-1899. Published by the Division of Law Macquarie University]

Platt to Goulburn. CSIL 4/1811 (11th Dec 1824): 199. (504 KB PDF) Mention of crops of maize swept off by the Blacks and the “severe” example made of them at Ironbark Hill, Hunters River. (Steel River site formerly the Murray Dwyer Orphanage, Mayfield).

Joseph Lycett (c1774/75 – 1828) The Sugarloaf Mountain, near Newcastle, New South Wales. 1824. Photographed by Bruce Turnbull [Courtesy Newcastle Region Art Gallery]


1826

4th February 1826 Mr. Dawson states that he derived great assistance from them (i.e. Natives) in the First Settlement (formation of) at Port Stephens. (Australian Agricultural Company Despatches B81)

24th April 1826 Mr. Dawson states that he derived great assistance from them (i.e. Natives) in the First Settlement (formation of) at Port Stephens. (Australian Agricultural Company Despatches B129)

R. v. Ridgway, Chip, Colthurst and Stanly. Supreme Court of New South Wales. Forbes C.J., 20 September 1826. Source: Sydney Gazette, 23 September 1826. John Ridgway, Samuel Chip, Edward Colthurst, and one Stanly, not before the Court, were indicted for the wilful murder of an aboriginal native youth, called Tommy, at Miau River, near Port Stephens, on the 8th day of May 1826. [Decisions of the Superior Courts of New South Wales, 1788-1899. Published by the Division of Law Macquarie University].

Article dated 1st September 1826 from The Monitor regarding the shooting of three blacks at Hunter’s River. (229 KB PDF)

15th September 1826 The Col. (Committee) informed the Directors that one Black was shot accidentally by a man named “Byron”, he was committed for Trial to appease the Tribe but was acquitted. (Australian Agricultural Company Despatches B163)

12th November 1826 They are fearful when they approach Strange Tribes who are always hostile to Native Strangers from feelings of jealousy. (Australian Agricultural Company Despatches B223)

13th November 1826 Mr. Dawson’s Account of the Natives he came in contact with at Davis’ Hills (Australian Agricultural Company Despatches B224 – B226)

Ebsworth, H.T. Extracts from H.T. Ebsworth’s A Letterbook or Journal in the Form of a Letter Book, Kept …At Sydney and Port Stephens 1826. (502 KB PDF) [Typescript of M.L. B852-2: John Turner Papers Courtesy Rosemary Melville]


1827

R. v. Stanley. Supreme Court of New South Wales. Forbes C.J., 3 March 1827. Source: Australian, 6 March 1827. Thomas Stanley stood capitally indicted for the wilful murder of an aboriginal native of the Colony, at Port Stephens.[Decisions of the Superior Courts of New South Wales, 1788-1899. Published by the Division of Law Macquarie University].

Article dated 30th March 1827 from The Monitor regarding Threlkeld’s work at Hunter’s River. (214 KB PDF)

Threlkeld, L. E. (Lancelot Edward), 1788-1859. Specimens of a Dialect of the Aborigines of New South Wales; Being the first attempt to form their speech into a written language. Sydney: Printed at the Monitor Office, 1827.(1.29 MB PDF) [Archives Shelf Number A 6704 Percy Haslam Collection]

Coke, William S. (William Sacheverell) The 1827 Newcastle notebook and letters of Lieutenant William S. Coke, H.M. 39th Regiment edited Cynthia Hunter. Raymond Terrace, N.S.W. : Hunter House Publications, 1997.

30th April 1827 Mr. Dawson reports that the women about Port Stephens are employed in picking the seeds of extraneous matter out of the wool to be shipped for England and cost of picking to the company 2/7 (Australian Agricultural Company Despatches B263, see also B363 – 4th August 1827 and B532 – 13th March 1828.)

R. v. Lowe. Supreme Court of New South Wales. Forbes C.J. and Stephen J., 18 May 1827. Source: Australian, 23 May 1827. Nathaniel Lowe, a Lieutenant in his Majesty’s 40th regt. was indicted for the wilful murder of a black named Jackey Jackey, alias Commandant, alias Jeffery, at Wallis’s Plains, in the month of August 1826.[Decisions of the Superior Courts of New South Wales, 1788-1899. Published by the Division of Law Macquarie University].

4th August 1827 Mr. Dawson reports that the women about Port Stephens are employed in picking the seeds of extraneous matter out of the wool to be shipped for England and cost of picking to the company 2/7 pts (Australian Agricultural Company Despatches B363 see also B263 – 30th April 1827 above and B532 – 13th March 1828.)

R. v. Tommy. Supreme Court of New South Wales. Forbes C.J., 24 November 1827. Source: Monitor, 26 November 1827. An aboriginal Native by the name of “Tommy, alias Jackey, Jackey,” was tried for the wilful murder of Jeoffrey Connell, near George’s Plains, on the 20th of June 1827. The Rev. Mr. Threlkeld and Bungaree, the Chief of the Sydney Blacks, attended as interpreters for him. [Decisions of the Superior Courts of New South Wales, 1788-1899. Published by the Division of Law Macquarie University]

30th November 1827 Col. Dumaresq appeared before the Directors and informed them that he considered W. Dawson’s treatment of them (i.e. the Natives) most excellent about 600 around him (Australian Agricultural Company Despatches A408)

1st December 1827 Mr. Dawson reports that those around Port Stephens continue peaceful and useful. (Australian Agricultural Company Despatches B447)

7th December 1827 Acc(ount) of the Exploring Party to the Manning River under Mr Alexander. McLeod Jnr was speared near that River by a hostile Tribe. (Australian Agricultural Company Despatches B435)


1828

8th January 1828 Mr. J Macarthur requires from Mr Dawson a Return of the amount of sundry issues made to the Blacks (Australian Agricultural Company Despatches B457)

Article from The Sydney Gazette 18th January 1828 by L.E. Threlkeld.(206 KB PDF)

13th March 1828 Mr.James Macarthur states that his enquiry of the 8th January on this head is quite un noticed by Mr. Dawson he, however, thinks that great unnecessary expense is incurred in Issues to them. Most disgraceful familiarities countenanced and encouraged by Mr. Dawson. (Australian Agricultural Company Despatches B530-B531)

Article from The Sydney Gazette 14th March 1828 relating to Nisimachus and L.E. Threlkeld. (149 KB PDF)

Article from The Monitor 9th April 1828 regarding volcanic hill on verge of Liverpool Plains p.1086. (203 KB PDF)

Article from The Sydney Gazette 18th April 1828 relating to L.E. Threlkeld.(146 KB PDF)

29th April 1828 The Colonial Committee are requested in a letter from N.S.W. Col. Govt. to furnish a Return of the number and description of those on the Comp’s Grant. (Australian Agricultural Company Despatches B907)

10th May 1828 Mr. James Macarthur states to the Directors that the disordered Native Women have been removed and the intercourse between Native Women and Convicts disallowed and other arrangements made to effect a diminution of the Venereal Disease. (Australian Agricultural Company Despatches B873-B874, see also B855-B856 26th May 1828 below)

17th May 1828 Mr. Bowman states that this disease (i.e. Venereal Disease) had been contracted to a great extent by the convicts having had connection with the Native Women (Australian Agricultural Company Despatches B823)

26th May 1828 Venereal Disease contracted by the Company’s servants in consequence of their having intercourse with the Native Women. (Australian Agricultural Company Despatches B832)

26th May 1828 Mr.James Macarthur states that he has been called upon by the Coll Govt. to report upon the State and condition of the Blacks on the Estates – thinks they may be made very useful in the preservation of Flocks at distant stations. He restorded the most influential use among them from Banishment impeded upon him by Mr. Dawson. (Australian Agricultural Company Despatches B855)

26th May 1828 Mr. James Macarthur states to the Directors that the disordered Native Women have been removed and the intercourse between Native Women and Convicts disallowed and other arrangements made to effect a diminution of the Venereal Disease. (Australian Agricultural Company Despatches B855-B856 see also B873-B874 10th May 1828 above)

May 1828 Dr Nisbet reports that those not attached to the Settlement are in a state of great wretchedness, many labouring under the effects of a baneful disease. Those attached to the Company have made some advancement towards civilisation and have a clean and orderly appearance. He thinks that not much dependence can be placed upon them – The Black Constables only useful for specific purposes. (Agricultural Company Despatches B905-B906)

Article from The Monitor 28th June 1828 regarding clothing provided to Aboriginals at Newcastle p.1238. (260 KB PDF)

Article from The Monitor 4th August 1828 regarding the shooting of six Aboriginals at Hunter’s River p.1280. (237 KB PDF)

Article from The Sydney Gazette 19th September 1828 relating to L.E. Threlkeld and J.D. Lang. (417 KB PDF)

A View of King’s Town (Late Newcastle) 1828 Engraver: Joseph Cross

Published in:

Author: Dangar, H. (Henry), 1796-1861

Title: Index and directory to map of the country bordering upon the River Hunter ; the lands of the Australian-Agricultural Company, with the ground plan and allotments of King’s Town, New South Wales : containing a detail of the annual quit rent and amount of the redemption of the same ; also historical notes upon the tenure and principle of granting lands in the colony since 1810 ; also for the guidance of emigrant settlers, a description of the unlocated country in the vicinity of Hunter’s River ; useful geographical notes on Liverpool Plains ; the present regulations and conditions upon which grants and sales of land are made by government, with observations thereon, with a view of the present state of agriculture in the colony, price of land, advice to settlers, &c. the whole forming with regard to land affairs in that colony, a complete emigrant’s guide / by H. Dangar

Published: London : Joseph Cross, 1828. (University of Newcastle Rare Book Collection)

Full Version (1MB)

Small Version (181KB)

Detail (354KB)

Detail2 (171KB)

Threlkeld, L.E. (Lancelot Edward), 1788-1859. [Manuscript] A Journal Kept By Lancelot Edward Threlkeld. Missionary. [87 MB PDF]

This original manuscript Journal of the Reverend Lancelot Threlkeld covers the period from December 1828 to circa February 1846 and is now lost. As it begins on page 63, it presumably formed part of a series of Journal diaries. It originally was inthe possession of an owner in Cattai. Prior to his death, the manuscript was lent to Mrs Raven, who then lent it to the Mitchell Library who digitised it. The Journal was then returned to the owner. After his death the manuscript disappeared and every avenue of locating it pursued by Mrs Raven has come to no avail causing great concern for the fate of such an important historical document to Hunter Region and Australian history.

We sincerely thank Mrs Marjorie Raven, great grand daughter of the late Reverend Threlkeld for her permission to publish this important Journal.

[September 2008 Update] Mrs Raven recently located a number of missing leaves from the manuscript which she copied and sent to us to incorporate into into the online manuscript. The missing pages are 154-161 and 267-268. There are an additional two pages placed at the end of the manuscript.


1830

Lycett, Joseph, ca. 1775-1828. Drawings of the natives & scenery of Van Diemens Land, 1830 [picture] [ca. 1820] 1 album (20 watercolours) ; 34 x 23.3 cm. (National Library of Australia)

Dawson, Robert (1782-1866). The present state of Australia : a description of the country, its advantages and prospects, with reference to emigration : and a particular account of the manners, customs, and condition of its Aboriginal inhabitants. London : Smith, Elder, 1830.

1831

Dawson, Robert (1782-1866). The present state of Australia : a description of the country, its advantages and prospects, with reference to emigration : and a particular account of the manners, customs, and condition of its Aboriginal inhabitants. London : Smith, Elder, 1831. 2nd Edition


1832

R. v. Boatman or Jackass and Bulleye. Supreme Court of New South Wales. Dowling J., 10 February 1832. Source: Dowling, Select Cases, Archives Office of N.S.W., 2/3466. The prisoner, an aboriginal Black native had been committed for trial by country magistrates charged with stealing a considerable number of sheep at Hunter’s River the property of Mr Palmer. [Decisions of the Superior Courts of New South Wales, 1788-1899. Published by the Division of Law Macquarie University]

Raymond, James (Compiler). The New South Wales Calendar and General Post Office Directory, 1832.

Please see excerpt for description of Great North Road, Branch of the Great North Road leading through Wollombi, through Maitland to the Williams River, Port Stephens, the Manning and Port Macquarie, Road from Wollarobba to Upper William and Chichester Rivers, Road from Newcastle through Maitland to Great North Road at Patrick’s Plains and Road from Brisbane Water to Maitland. pp.124 – 154 Click here for PDF version (840KB) Mentions Aboriginal place names.


1833

Lieutenant Breton in the Hunter Region. (58MB PDF file – Beware this is a large file recommended for fast broadband users) It has been OCRed and so can be text searched.

Contains 94 pages of exerpts relating to the flora and fauna of Newcastle, Maitland and the Hunter Region with many references to Aboriginal people and descriptions of the landscape. Chapter 2 pp. 86 – 137 and Chapter 4 pp. 186 – 299.

Breton, William Henry, d.1887. Excursions in New South Wales, Western Australia and Van Diemen’s Land, during the years 1830, 1831, 1832, and 1833 by Lieut. Breton. London : Richard Bentley, 1833. Cultural Coll/RB AUROUSS 994.02/174


1834

Lang, John Dunmore, 1799-1878. An historical and statistical account of New South Wales, both as a penal settlement and as a British colony / by John Dunmore Lang. London : Cochrane and M’Crone, 1834.Vol. 2 Chapter 2 pp. 85-126. (3.84 MB PDF) or (0.99MB PDF OCR version) [Coquun-Hunter River Site]

Threlkeld, L. E. (Lancelot Edward), 1788-1859. An Australian grammar : comprehending the principles and natural rules of the language, as spoken by the Aborigines in the vicinity of Hunter’s River, Lake Macquarie, &c. New South Wales / by L.E. Threlkeld. Sydney : Printed by Stephens and Stokes, 1834.

R. v. Jackey. Source: Australian, 6 May 1834. An aboriginal native named Jacky Jacky, committed to take trial for the murder of a white man at Mr. Mossman’s farm on Williams’s River. [Decisions of the Superior Courts of New South Wales, 1788-1899. Published by the Division of Law Macquarie University]

W.G. Broughton and L.E. Threlkeld. A Selection of Prayers for the Morning and Evening From The Service of the Church of England Intended for the introduction of publick worship Amongst The Aborigines of Australia, 1834. The Venerable W.G. Broughton M.A. Arch Deacon of New South Wales and its Dependencies. Translated Into the Northumberland Dialect by L.E. Threlkeld, 1834. [3.75MB PDF] Courtesy of the Mitchell Library. We sincerely thank Mrs Marjorie Raven, great grand daughter of the late Reverend Threlkeld for her permission to publish this manuscript online.


1835

R. v. Monkey and others. Supreme Court of New South Wales. Burton J., 11 February 1835. Source: Sydney Herald, 12 February 1835. Aboriginal Natives arraigned for a burglary in the dwelling-house of Mr. Alfred Hill Jaques. of Brisbane Water. Rev. Mr. Threlkeld, of Lake Macquarie, Missionary to the Aborigines, was sworn as interpreter. [Decisions of the Superior Courts of New South Wales, 1788-1899. Published by the Division of Law Macquarie University]


1836

Threlkeld, L. E. (Lancelot Edward), 1788-1859. An Australian spelling book in the language as spoken by the Aborigines in the vicinity of Hunter’s River, Lake Macquarie, New South Wales. Sydney : Printed by Stephens and Stokes George Street, 1836. (761 KB PDF) [Courtesy of the National Library of Australia, Rex Nan Kivell Collection NK1136.]

[Image] Mickie, Lake Macquarie, Newcastle Tribe from Sketches of Aborigines of New South Wales, ca. 1836 by W.H. Fernyhough. [Courtesy of the State Library of New South Wales]

[Image] Boardman, Lake Macquarie Tribe from Sketches of Aborigines of New South Wales, ca. 1836 by W.H. Fernyhough. [Courtesy of the State Library of New South Wales]

[Image] Mickie, Lake Macquarie, Newcastle Tribe from Collection of portraits, predominately of Aborigines of New South Wales and Tasmania, ca. 1817-1849. [Courtesy of the State Library of New South Wales]

[Image] Jemmy, Newcastle tribe [ca. 1836] from Collection of portraits, predominately of Aborigines of New South Wales and Tasmania, ca. 1817-1849. [Courtesy of the State Library of New South Wales]

[Image] Boardman, Lake Macquarie Tribe [ca. 1836] from Collection of portraits, predominately of Aborigines of New South Wales and Tasmania, ca. 1817-1849. [Courtesy of the State Library of New South Wales]


1837

R. v. Wombarty. Supreme Court of New South Wales. Burton J., 14 August 1837. Source: Sydney Gazette, 19 August 1837. Threlkeld and McGill were present at this trial to assist the defendant Wombarty of the Port Macquarie Tribe. [Decisions of the Superior Courts of New South Wales, 1788-1899. Published by the Division of Law Macquarie University]

New South Wales. Aborigines: Reports of the mission to the Aborigines at Lake Macquarie, and at Wellington Valley / L. E. Threlkeld ; William Watson, James Gunther. [857KB PDF]

Shelf Location: AUCH – RB/COLL Q305.89915 NEWS-3

[Digitised and Threlkeld Report transcribed by Gionni Di Gravio, March 2005]


1838

See Henry William Hemsworth Huntington’s account relating to Myall Creek Massacre in 1838.

Mitchell, Thomas. Three Expeditions into the Interior of Eastern Australia with descriptions of the recently explored region of Australia Felix, and of the present Colony of New South Wales. 2nd Ed. (Freeread) Contains descriptions of the Wollombi and Hunter Valley.


1841

Awaba or Lake Macquarie in 1841. This is a historical chart or map of Lake Macquarie with geological locations marked including Aboriginal place names. The database says that the outline was sketched by W. Procter from his examination in August 1841 and base printed by W. Baker Lithographer, King Street Sydney. Extensive notes were possibly made by the Reverend W. B. Clarke regarding rock outcrops and the location of fossils.


1842

Article “The Blacks” from The Hunter River Gazette, 22nd January 1842. (140 KB PDF)

Mann, J. F. [Manuscript] Aboriginal Names by J.F. Mann. [PDF DOWNLOAD] State Library of New South Wales. According to Dr Jim Wafer the manuscript is undated, but consists of a vocabulary of the Hunter River-Lake Macquarie language collected by J.F. Mann at Brisbane Water in 1842.


1843

Backhouse, James. Chapters 33-35 from A Narrative of a Visit to the Australian Colonies. London : Hamilton, Adams, 1843. pp.368 – 414.(3.43 MB PDF)


1845

Wilkes, Charles. Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition.Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard, 1845.

Vol. 2 pp. 245 – 256 Visit to Newcastle and Lake Macquarie, meeting with Dr Brooks, Threlkeld and Biraban (M’Gill) (480 KB PDF)

Another version is available on the website of The United State Exploring Expedition, 1838 – 1842 (Smithsonian Institution Libraries Digital Collection) with a slightly different pagination:

Narrative of the U.S. Exploring Expedition, Volume 2 by Charles Wilkes. Philadelphia: C. Sherman, 1844.

Volume 2 Chapter VIII pp. 260 – 271. (823 KB PDF)

Click here for enlarged images of the Opossum Skin Cloak and Long Handled Narrow Club collected on the Expedition. Click here to search their database for more objects.

Vocabulary of the Allyn River Black’s Language“, ca. 1845. A small booklet containing a vocabulary of words used by the Australian Aboriginal people of the Allyn River district in the Hunter Valley, NSW.  [View Album ] [Courtesy of the State Library of New South Wales]


1846

See Henry William Hemsworth Huntington’s account relating to murder of Andrew Menzies.

Article from The Sydney Morning Herald 1st May 1846 relating to death of M’Gill (Biraban) in Newcastle on the 14th April 1846. (264 KB PDF)

N.S.W. Legislative Council Committee – Select Committee on the Condition of the Aborigines. 1846 New South Wales. Aborigines. Replies to a Circular Letter, addressed to the Clergy, of all Denominations, By Order of The Select Committee on the Condition of the Aborigines.Ordered, By the Council, To be Printed 31st October 1846. Sydney: Printed by W.W. Davies, At the Government Printing Office. [Archive shelf location B9841-B9842] The following replies relating to the local region transcribed by Margaret Fryer and Gionni di Gravio (HTML file): Reverend C.P.N. Wilton, (Newcastle); Reverend George K. Rusden, (East Maitland); Reverend George Augustus Middleton, (Morpeth); Reverend Robert Thorley Bolton, (Hexham); Reverend John Jennings Smith, (Paterson); Reverend Joseph Cooper, (Falbrook and Jerry’s Plains); Reverend William Ross, (Paterson); Reverend Robert Stewart, (Newcastle).

Hale, Horatio. United States Exploring Expedition. During the years 1838,1839, 1840, 1841, 1842.Under the Command of Charles Wilkes, U.S.N. Ethnography and Philology by Horation Hale, Philologist of the Expedition. [Philadelphia]: Lea and Blanchard, 1846. Excerpt “The Languages of Australia” pp.479-531. ( 3.04 MB PDF)

Another version is available on the website of The United State Exploring Expedition, 1838 – 1842 (Smithsonian Institution Libraries Digital Collection):

Hale, Horatio. Ethnology and Philology by Horatio Hale. Philadelphia: C. Sherman, 1846.

Philological Part. The Languages of Australia pp. 479 – 531. ( 2.32 MB PDF)

Tindale’s “Aboriginal Tribes”, under Geawegal says: “Northern tributaries of the Hunter River to Murru-rundi; at Muswellbrook, Aberdeen, Scone, and Mount Royal Range. Affiliated with the coastal Worimi. The grammar and vocabulary published by Hale (1845), following Threl-keld (1834), relates principally to this tribe. The ascription of it to Kamilaroi by Hale is an unexplained error, although the languages are closely related. Hale indicated the dominance of unvoiced consonants in the two languages he studied, hence the best spelling of this tribal name could well be Keawekal or Keawaikal (‘no sayers’).”


1850

Threlkeld, L. E. (Lancelot Edward), 1788-1859. A key to the structure of the Aboriginal language : being an analysis of the particles used as affixes, to form the various modifications of the verbs : shewing the essential powers, abstract roots, and other peculiarities of the language spoken by the Aborigines in the vicinity of Hunter River, Lake Macquarie, etc., New South Wales : together with comparisons of Polynesian and other dialects. Sydney : Printed by Kemp and Fairfax, 1850. (4.60 MB PDF) [University of Newcastle Rare Books: 499.15 THRE-1]


c.1850s

Aboriginal Songs from the 1850s: “Kilaben Bay Song” and “Women’s Rondo” (Awabakal language) from The New Oxford Book of Australian Verse Edited by Les Murray. Melbourne: OUP, 1986. pp.36-37. (111KB PDF) Les Murray wishes to acknowledge the late Percy Haslam, who brought the songs to his attention. We wish to thank both Les Murray and the Oxford University Press for kind permission to reproduce these Awabakal Songs online.


1853

Frederick Terry (1827 – 1869) Newcastle From the Nobby (1853/55) Photographed by Bruce Turnbull [Courtesy Newcastle Region Art Gallery]

Frederick Terry (1827 – 1869) The Nobbies from Newcastle (1853/1855) Photographed by Bruce Turnbull [Courtesy Newcastle Region Art Gallery]


1854

Article “The Last of the Newcastle Tribe” from the Maitland Mercury 21st June 1854. (183 KB PDF)


1855

Story of the Kangaroo within Nobbys was recorded by the Rev L.E. Threlkeld in the Christian Herald, 17th February 1855, Vol.III, p.5-6. [Published in Australian Reminiscences & Papers of L.E.Threlkeld, Missionary to the Aborigines, 1824-1859. 2 vols, ed. Niel Gunson. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, 1974:65] (Coal River Website)


1856

Ridley, William. Gurre Kamilaroi : or Kamilaroi sayings; the engravings by W. Mason. Sydney: Printed at the Empire General Steam Printing Office, 1856. (1.16 MB PDF)


1857

Askew, John. A voyage to Australia & New Zealand including a visit to Adelaide, Melbourne, Sydney, Hunter’s River, Newcastle, Maitland and Auckland : with a summary of the progress and discoveries made in each colony from its founding to the present time by a steerage passenger, John Askew. London : Simpkin Marshall, 1857. Read Askew’s Observations of Hunter’s River and a trip along the Maitland Road on pp. 237-316. [5.69 MB PDF File]


1858

Threlkeld, L.E. “Language of the Australian Aborigines” in Waugh’s Australian Almanac for the Year 1858. Sydney: James Waugh, 1858 pp.60-80. (771 KB PDF)


1871

Article relating to Old Ned of Lake Macquarie from The Newcastle Chronicle 2nd September 1871 p.4. (207 KB PDF)

Shaw, John. “Naboth’s Vineyard at Lake Macquarie” from The Newcastle Chronicle 9th September 1871. (318 KB PDF)


1874

John Skinner Prout (1806 – 1876) Near Newcastle on the Hunter, New South Wales. (c.1874-76)

Photographed by Bruce Turnbull [Courtesy Newcastle Region Art Gallery]

John Skinner Prout (1806 – 1876) Port Stephens (c.1874-76). Photographed by Bruce Turnbull [Courtesy Newcastle Region Art Gallery]


1875

Ridley, Rev. William (1819-1878) . Excerpts on “Traditions” from Kamilarai and other Australian Languages. Sydney: Thomas Richards, 1875. pp.135– 172. (2.09 MB PDF)


1878

Article entitled “Wreck of a Newcastle Vessel – The Crew Murdered by the Blacks” from the Newcastle Morning Herald & Miners Advocate, 13th September 1878 p.2. (312 KB PDF)


1880

“Appendix G: The Gaewe-gal Tribe” of Kamilaroi and Kurnai : group-marriage and relationship, and marriage by elopement, drawn chiefly from the usage of the Australian aborigines : also the Kurnai tribe, their customs in peace and war / by Lorimer Fison and A.W. Howitt ; with an introduction by Lewis H. Morgan. Melbourne : George Robertson, 1880. pp.279 – 284. (583 KB PDF)

Article entitled “The Old Aboriginal ‘Margaret’” from the Newcastle Morning Herald & Miners Advocate, 20th February 1880 p.2. (253 KB PDF)

Article entitled “Margaret of Lake Macquarie” from the Newcastle Morning Herald & Miners Advocate, 20th March 1880. (174 KB PDF)

Article entitled “Margaret of Lake Macquarie” from the Newcastle Morning Herald & Miners Advocate, 20th March 1880. [Transcription] (24 KB PDF)


1881

MacPherson, Rev. Peter “Astronomy of the Australian Aborigines” in Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales for the Year 1881. Vol. XV Syd: Thomas Richards, 1882 pp. 71 – 80. (905 KB PDF)

Article entitled “Discovery of Aboriginal Remains”. Newcastle Morning Herald & Miners Advocate, 9th June 1881 p.2. [Original and Transcription] (212 KB PDF) [Transcribed by Nicholas Ellem]

Article entitled “More Aboriginal Skeletons”. Newcastle Morning Herald & Miners Advocate, 10th June 1881 p.2. [Original and Transcription] (244 KB PDF) [Transcribed by Nicholas Ellem]

Aboriginal Burial Ground Discovered in Parry Street, 1881. [Transcriptions and Overlays by Russell Rigby and Gionni Di Gravio]

Article entitled ‘”Old Margaret” of Lake Macquarie’. Newcastle Morning Herald & Miners Advocate, 16th June 1881 p.2. [Original and Transcription] (199 KB PDF) [Transcribed by Nicholas Ellem]


1882

Fraser, John “The Aborigines of New South Wales” in Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales for the Year 1882. Vol. XVI Syd: Thomas Richards, 1883 pp. 193 – 233. (3.87 MB PDF)


1886

MacPherson, Rev Peter “The Aboriginal Names of Rivers in Australia Philologically Examined” in Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales for 1886. Vol. XX Sydney: Charles Potter, 1887 pp. 113 – 141. (2.29 MB PDF)

Mathews, R.H. “The Keeparra Ceremony of Initiation” in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. XXVI, pp.320 – 340. (1.74 MB PDF)

Miller, Robert. “No.188 The Hunter River. The Wonnarua Tribe and Language.” in Curr, Edward M. The Australian race : its origin, languages, customs, place of landing in Australia, and the routes by which it spread itself over that continent. Melbourne : John Farnes, Govt. Printer ; London :Trübner, 1886-1887. pp.352 – 357. (241 KB PDF)


1890

Fraser, Dr John “Some Remarks on the Australian Languages” in Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales for 1890. Vol. XXIV Sydney: The Society pp. 231 – 253. (2.64 MB PDF)

[Image] 55. “Melandiga”, Warrior, Clarence River N.S.W. from Australian Aboriginals photographed by Kerry & Co. ca. 1890-1898. [Courtesy of State Library of New South Wales]

[Image] 66. “Gumbarlee”, Warrior, Clarence River, N.S.W. from Australian Aboriginals photographed by Kerry & Co. ca. 1890-1898. [Courtesy of State Library of New South Wales]

[Image] 67. Aboriginal, Namoi River N.S.W. from Australian Aboriginals photographed by Kerry & Co. ca. 1890-1898. [Courtesy of State Library of New South Wales]

[Image] 94. “Gumbarlee”, Warrior, Clarence River, N.S.W. from Australian Aboriginals photographed by Kerry & Co. ca. 1890-1898. [Courtesy of State Library of New South Wales]

[Image] 95. “Gumbarlee”, Warrior, Clarence River, N.S.W. from Australian Aboriginals photographed by Kerry & Co. ca. 1890-1898. [Courtesy of State Library of New South Wales]

[Image] 132. “Weyera”, Chief, Hunter River Tribe, N.S.W. from Australian Aboriginals photographed by Kerry & Co. ca. 1890-1898. [Courtesy of State Library of New South Wales]

[Image] 133. “Weyera”, Chief, Hunter River Tribe, N.S.W. from Australian Aboriginals photographed by Kerry & Co. ca. 1890-1898. [Courtesy of State Library of New South Wales]

[Image] 136. “Melandiga”, warrior, Clarence River, N.S.W. from Australian Aboriginals photographed by Kerry & Co. ca. 1890-1898. [Courtesy of State Library of New South Wales]

[Image] 137. “Melandiga”, warrior, Clarence River, N.S.W. from Australian Aboriginals photographed by Kerry & Co. ca. 1890-1898. [Courtesy of State Library of New South Wales]

[Image] 138. Aboriginal Warrior, Namoi River, N.S.W. from Australian Aboriginals photographed by Kerry & Co. ca. 1890-1898. [Courtesy of State Library of New South Wales]


1892

Threlkeld, L. E. (Lancelot Edward), 1788-1859. An Australian language as spoken by the Awabakal, the people of Awaba or Lake Macquarie (near Newcastle, New South Wales) being an account of their language, traditions and customs/ by L.E. Threlkeld ; re-arranged, condensed and edited with an appendix by John Fraser. Sydney : Charles Potter, Govt. Printer, 1892.

Hill, Richard, (1782-1836). Notes on the Aborigines of New South Wales : with personal reminiscences of the tribes formerly living in the neighbourhood of Sydney and the surrounding districts / by The Hon. Richard Hill and The Hon. George Thornton Sydney : C. Potter, Govt Printer, 1892.


1893

Mathews, R.H. “Rock Paintings by the Aborigines in Caves on Bulgar Creek, Near Singleton” in Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales for 1893. Vol. XXVII Sydney: The Society pp. 353 – 358. (1.26 MB PDF)


1894

Mathews, R.H. “Aboriginal Bora Held at Gundabloui in 1894” in Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales for 1894. Vol. XXVIII Sydney: The Society pp. 98 – 128 and Mathews, R.H. “Additional Remarks concerning Aboriginal Bora Held at Gundabloui in 1894” Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales for 1896. Vol. XXX Sydney: The Society pp.211 – 213. (2.54 MB PDF)


1895

Mathews, R.H. “The Bora or Initiation Ceremonies of the Kamilaroi Tribe” in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. XXIV, [1895] pp.411 – 427 and R.H. Mathews “The Bora or Initiation Ceremonies of the Kamilaroi Tribe (Part 2) ” in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. XXIV, [1896] pp.318 – 339. (3.09 MB PDF)

News clipping on Early Wallsend History being a Transcription of item A6725(v) [Unsourced and undated, c.1895-1921] in the Percy Haslam Collection, Archives Rare Books & Special Collections Unit, Auchmuty Library, University of  Newcastle. Contains a rare account of local aboriginals in the Wallsend and Birmingham Gardens areas as well as native names of Sugarloaf Mountain, Wallsend and other localities.


1896

Mathews, R.H. “The Burbung of the Wiradthuri Tribes” in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. XXV, [1896] pp.296 – 318. and R.H. Mathews “The Burbung of the Wiradthuri Tribes (Part 2)” in Journal of the Anthropological Institute, Vol. XXVI? pp.272 – 285. (4.13 MB PDF)

Mathews, R.H. “The Rock Pictures of the Australian Aborigines” in Proceedings and Transactions of the Queensland Branch of the Royal Geographical Society of Australasia 11th Session 1895-96 Vol. XI Brisbane, 1896 pp.86 – 105. (3.11 MB PDF)


1897

Mathews, R.H. “The Bora of the Kamilaroi Tribes” in Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria Vol IX (New Series) Melbourne, 1897 pp.137 – 173. (2.59 MB PDF)

Mathews, R.H. “The Burbung of the Darkinung Tribes” in Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria Vol X (New Series) Part 1 Melbourne, 1897 pp.1 – 12. (772 KB PDF)

Huntington, H. W. H. (Henry William Hemsworth) “History of Newcastle and the Northern District no.3″ from Newcastle Morning Herald. 13th August 1897. Excerpt relating to conflict with the Port Stephen Natives in 1795. (1.16 MB PDF)

Huntington, H. W. H. (Henry William Hemsworth) “History of Newcastle and the Northern District no.4″ from Newcastle Morning Herald. 17th August 1897. Excerpt relating to Captain Broughton’s discovery of four runaway convicts during his survey of Port Stephens in 1795 and their experiences living with the natives. (324 KB PDF)

Huntington, H. W. H. (Henry William Hemsworth) “History of Newcastle and the Northern District no.4″ from Newcastle Morning Herald. 17th August 1897. Excerpt relating to quarrels between the Newcastle Blacks and fishermen in 1796. (178 KB PDF)

Huntington, H. W. H. (Henry William Hemsworth) “History of Newcastle and the Northern District no.14″ from Newcastle Morning Herald. 21st September 1897. Excerpt relating to Collin’s Diary account of meeting between fishermen and Port Stephens Aboriginals, friendly disposition of the Newcastle Natives and the search for the “Wild White Woman”. (342 KB PDF)

Huntington, H. W. H. (Henry William Hemsworth) “History of Newcastle and the Northern District no.15″ from Newcastle Morning Herald. 24th September 1897.  Excerpt relating to Quarter-Master Hacking and his punishment of the Newcastle Blacks in 1799. (263 KB PDF)

Huntington, H. W. H. (Henry William Hemsworth) “History of Newcastle and the Northern District no.16″ from Newcastle Morning Herald. 28th September 1897. Excerpt relating to role of King Bungaree in the early settlement of Newcastle. (108 KB PDF)

Huntington, H. W. H. (Henry William Hemsworth) “History of Newcastle and the Northern District no.22″ from Newcastle Morning Herald. 19th October 1897. Excerpt relating to meeting aboard the Lady Nelson of the Budgerie Dick and King Bungaree. (344 KB PDF)

Huntington, H. W. H. (Henry William Hemsworth) “History of Newcastle and the Northern District no.29″ from Newcastle Morning Herald. 12th November 1897. Excerpt relating to a Wild Man of the Newcastle Forest. (378 KB PDF)

Huntington, H. W. H. (Henry William Hemsworth) “History of Newcastle and the Northern District no.30″ from Newcastle Morning Herald. 16th November 1897. Excerpt relating to Pirate Point Pirates and the Natives. (252 KB PDF)

Huntington, H. W. H. (Henry William Hemsworth) “History of Newcastle and the Northern District no.36″ from Newcastle Morning Herald. 7th December 1897. Excerpt relating to Lieutenant Grant’s encounters with a Newcastle Chieftain. (161 KB PDF)

Huntington, H. W. H. (Henry William Hemsworth) “History of Newcastle and the Northern District no.37″ from Newcastle Morning Herald. 10th December 1897. Excerpt relating to Dr Mason’s description in November 1801 of the peaceable nature of the Natives. (300 KB PDF)

Huntington, H. W. H. (Henry William Hemsworth) “History of Newcastle and the Northern District no.38″ from Newcastle Morning Herald. 14th December 1897. Barrallier and Grimes opinion on the hostile nature of the natives, sacred places and native duel on Prospect (Obelisk) Hill Newcastle. (197 KB PDF)


1898

Huntington, H. W. H. (Henry William Hemsworth) “History of Newcastle and the Northern District no.45″ from Newcastle Morning Herald. 11th January 1898. Excerpt relating to struggles between cedar getters and Aboriginals in the Upper Hunter in June 1804. (218 KB PDF)

Huntington, H. W. H. (Henry William Hemsworth) “History of Newcastle and the Northern District no.46″ from Newcastle Morning Herald. 14th January 1898. Excerpt relating to use of Aboriginals to catch bushrangers. (142 KB PDF)

Huntington, H. W. H. (Henry William Hemsworth) “History of Newcastle and the Northern District no.54″ from Newcastle Morning Herald. 11th February 1898. Excerpt relating to the double murder committed by Port Stephens Aboriginal known as “Robert” in Stockton in October 1808. (155 KB PDF)

Huntington, H. W. H. (Henry William Hemsworth) “History of Newcastle and the Northern District no.55″ from Newcastle Morning Herald. 15th February 1898. Excerpt relating to discovery of Telligerry Creek in 1809. (140 KB PDF)

Huntington, H. W. H. (Henry William Hemsworth) “History of Newcastle and the Northern District no.65″ from Newcastle Morning Herald. 22nd March 1898. Excerpt relating to Commandant Wallis’ rule of convicts and natives. (108 KB PDF)

Huntington, H. W. H. (Henry William Hemsworth) “History of Newcastle and the Northern District no.86″ from Newcastle Morning Herald. 7th June 1898. Excerpt relating to Myall Creek Massacre in 1838. (334 KB PDF)

Huntington, H. W. H. (Henry William Hemsworth) “History of Newcastle and the Northern District no.99″ from Newcastle Morning Herald. 26th July 1898. Excerpt relating to the 1846 trial of William Shea for the murder of Andrew Menzies in December 1845. (554 KB PDF)

Fawcett, J.W. “Notes on the Customs and Dialect of the Wonnah-Ruah Tribe” in Science August 23rd 1898 pp.152 – 154. (426 KB PDF)

Fawcett, J.W. “Customs of the Wonnah-Ruah Tribe, and their Dialect or Vocabulary.” in Science September 21st 1898 pp.152 – 154. (645 KB PDF)


1899

Enright, W.J. “The Initiation Ceremonies of the Aborigines of Port Stephens, N.S. Wales” in Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales for 1899. Vol. XXXIII Sydney: The Society pp. 115 – 124. (889 KB PDF)


1900

Enright, W.J. “The Language, Weapons and Manufactures of the Aborigines of Port Stephens, N.S.W.” in Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales for 1900. Vol. XXXIV Sydney: The Society pp. 103 – 118. (2.11 MB PDF)

Article entitled “The Aborigines of Port Stephens” from the Newcastle Morning Herald & Miners Advocate, 14th November 1900 p.8. (336 KB PDF)


1905

Article entitled “Aborignes’ (sic) Mission – A Missionary From Newcastle” from the Newcastle Morning Herald & Miners Advocate, 11th April 1905. (292 KB PDF)


1907

The Cyclopedia of N.S.W. (illustrated) : an historical and commercial review, descriptive and biographical, facts, figures and illustrations ; an epitome of progress. Sydney: McCarron, Stewart & Co., 1907. Excerpt N4-N5 recounts story of 1799 conflict between Aborigines and crews of colliers reported to Governor Hunter, who sent Mr A. Hacking to investigate. (212 KB PDF)


1911

McKiernan, Bernard. “Some notes on the Aborigines of the Lower Hunter River, New South Wales” in Anthropos Vol. 6 (1911): pp. 885 – 892. (670 KB PDF)


1915

Article entitled “Early Newcastle Cemetery – Borough Market Site” from the Newcastle Morning Herald & Miners Advocate, 11th November 1915 p.6. (43 KB PDF)

Article entitled “Early Burial Place – Borough Market Site” from the Newcastle Morning Herald & Miners Advocate, 13th November 1915 p.3. (179 KB PDF)


1918

Etheridge Jnr, R. The Dendroglyphs, or “Carved Trees” of New South Wales. Sydney: William Applegate Gullick, 1918.

Title, Preface and Contents Pages (365 KB PDF)

Part 1 General Remarks (762 KB PDF)

Part 2 Taphoglyphs (Inhumation, “Carved Trees,” or Grave Indicators) (3.26 MB)

Part 3 Teleteglyphs, or Bora-Trees. (2.31 MB PDF)

Part 4 Melville and Bathurst Islands Burial Posts (257 KB PDF)

Part 5 Possible Sources of the Culture (253 KB PDF)

Appendix 1 Kruben and Koen

Appendix 2 Supposed Traces of Agriculture

Appendix 3 Stone Structures

Addenda (485 KB PDF for Appendices and Addenda)

Plates 1-10. (1.22 MB PDF)

Plates 11-20. (981 KB PDF)

Plates 21-30. (1.13 MB PDF)

Plates 31-39. (1.14 MB PDF)


1920

Cambage, R.H. and Selkirk, Henry “Early Drawings of an Aboriginal Ceremonial Ground.” in Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New South Wales for 1920. Vol. LIV Sydney: The Society pp. 74 – 78. (560 KB PDF)


1923

Enright,W.J. ‘Notes on an Aboriginal Stone Axe discovered in West Maitland, NSW’, Pan-Pacific Congress (Australia), Proceedings 1 (1923): 269-70. (95 KB PDF)

Article entitled “Aboriginal Place Names” from the Newcastle Morning Herald, 24th March 1923 p.11. (176 KB PDF)


1925

Cooksey, Daniel F. “Stone Age Relics” in The B.H.P.Recreation Review (July 15th 1925). (80 KB PDF) Transcribed by Gionni Di Gravio. [Courtesy Col Whitehead with kind permission from the Cooksey Family]

[Cooksey Family] File containing correspondence, field notes, maps and drawings of artefacts. (1.00 MB PDF) Including: Letter dated 12th August 1925 from W.T. Wells to D.F.Cooksey regarding deposit of artefacts with Australian Museum and W.W. Thorpe’s intention for a critical study; Letter of Receipt of Donation from Australian Museum to Mr D.F. Cooksey dated 15th April 1926; Letter from Town Clerk (Newcastle City Council) to Fred Cooksey dated 29th April 1926 regarding the establishment of a Museum in the city; Letter from W.W. Thorpe to Mr Cooksey dated 17th August 1926 regarding papers, Miss Hall’s deductions regarding artefacts and Morna Point and fascination for Newcastle; Three hand drawn maps of Newcastle showing islands and find spots of Aboriginal artefacts [c.1920s]; Letter from C.C. Humphries to Mr Cooksey dated 27th September 1926 regarding black stone axe; Assorted field notes and drawings of artefacts [c.1920s] [Courtesy Col Whitehead with kind permission from the Cooksey Family]


1926

Cooksey, Daniel F. “Aboriginal Flakes and Tools of Newcastle (N.S.W.) and District” 1st Paper [Typescript] [1926]. (1.72 MB PDF) [Courtesy Col Whitehead with kind permission from the Cooksey Family]

Cooksey, Daniel F. “Aboriginal Flakes and Tools of Newcastle (N.S.W.) and District” 2nd Paper [Typescript] [1926]. (1.08 MB PDF) [Courtesy Col Whitehead with kind permission from the Cooksey Family]

Thorpe, W.W. “Aboriginal Flakework” in The Newcastle Morning Herald (25th March 1926). (66.3 KB PDF) [Courtesy Col Whitehead with kind permission from the Cooksey Family]

[Cooksey Family] Two clippings “Public Notice: Australasian Society Excursion to Galgabba (Scene of the excit of the Awabakil Tribe)” in The Newcastle Morning Herald (12th May 1926) and clipping relating to Mr C.C. Humphries gift to Newcastle Council of an aboriginal axe in The Newcastle Morning Herald (20th April 1926). (36.8 KB PDF) [Courtesy Col Whitehead with kind permission from the Cooksey Family]

[Cooksey Family] Two clippings “Burying the Hatchet! City Aldermen Fraternise” in The Newcastle Morning Herald (7th April 1926) both relating to Mr C.C. Humphries gift to the City of Newcastle of an aboriginal axe in the hope of the establishment of a museum for the city. (56.1 KB PDF) [Courtesy Col Whitehead with kind permission from the Cooksey Family]

[Cooksey Family] Clipping “Ancient Bones Museum Man Dogs Skeletons from Newcastle Sand” in [The Newcastle Morning Herald] (15th June 1926). (293 KB PDF) [Courtesy Col Whitehead with kind permission from the Cooksey Family]

[Cooksey Family] Clipping “Aboriginal Stone Implements” in [The Newcastle Morning Herald] (6th August 1926). (84.8 KB PDF) [Courtesy Col Whitehead with kind permission from the Cooksey Family]


1928

Thorpe, W.W. “Ethnological Notes. No.1” in Records of the Australian Museum Vol. XVI No. 5 (Sydney May 29th 1928) (2.29 MB PDF)

Hall, Lesly D. “Some Aboriginal Flakes from Morna Point, New South Wales.” in Records of the Australian Museum Vol. XVI No.5 (Sydney May 29th 1928). (3.32 MB PDF)


1929

Scott, William.The Port Stephens Blacks: The Recollections of William Scott [1929] (2.31 MB PDF)

Bennett, Gordon. The earliest inhabitants : Aboriginal tribes of the district : the blacks of Dungog, Port Stephens and Gresford. (2.08 MB PDF)


1932

Enright, W.J. “The Kattang (Kutthung) or Worimi: An Aboriginal Tribe” in Mankind 1:4 (March 1932): 75-77. (471 KB PDF)

Thorpe, W.W. “The ‘Elouera’” in Mankind (March 1932):88. (194 KB PDF)

Enright, W.J. “An Old Aboriginal Paddle” in Mankind 1:5 (Aug 1932):103. (121 KB PDF)

Articles relating to the death of W.W. Thorpe including “The Late W.W. Thorpe”, “An Appreciation” by William Walford Thorpe and “The Closing Chapter of Mr Thorpe’s Life” by Essie Roughley in Mankind 1:6 (Dec 1932): 133 – 135. (279 KB PDF)

Walton, W.J. “An Aboriginal Devil Rock” in Mankind 1:6 (Dec 1932): 140 – 141. (153 KB PDF)


1933

Enright, W.J. “Further Notes on the Worimi” in Mankind (Aug 1933):161 – 162. (240 KB PDF)


1934

Goddard, R.H. “Notes on Certain Massive Flaked Implements Found in the Port Stephens District.” in Mankind 1:8 (Jan 1934):191 – 193. (197 KB PDF)

White, H. O’Sullivan (Ed. W.J. Enright) “Some Recollections of the Aborigines of New South Wales in the Years 1848, 1849 and 1850” in Mankind (May 1934):223- 227. (579 KB PDF)

Enright, W.J. “Aboriginal Rock Paintings at Wollombi” in Mankind 1:10 (Oct 1934):234 – 235. (247 KB PDF)


1935

Article entitled “Skull and Bones Church-street Discovery Probably Aboriginal” from the Newcastle Morning Herald, 15th May 1935 p.6. (252 KB PDF)

Enright, W.J. “Distribution of Merewether Chert” in Mankind 1:12 (Dec. 1935): 8. (290 KB PDF)


1936

Enright, W.J. “The Worimi Tribe” in Newcastle and Hunter District Historical Society Journal and Proceedings. Vol.1 Pt.1 (1936): 85-89. (322 KB PDF)

Enright, W.J. “Aboriginal Axe Factory” in Mankind 2:1 (Apr. 1936): 23. (198 KB PDF)


1937

Certain observations of Aboriginal rock-carvings in the Wollombi district/ by R.H. Goddard. Interpretation of the drawings at Burragurra and Yango / by Frederic Slater Auckland Meeting 14th January 1937. (1.09 MB PDF)

Elkin, A.P. “Notes on the Psychic Life of the Australian Aborigines” in Mankind 2:3 (Jan 1937): 49-56. (Plates not reproduced) (789 KB PDF)

Article entitled “Aboriginal Relics Need for Legislation Anthropologists’ Plea ” from the Newcastle Morning Herald, 19th March 1937 p.15. (404 KB PDF)

Article entitled “Human Skeletons Unearthed on Gold Links Probably Female Aborigines” from the Newcastle Morning Herald, 4th June 1937 p.12. (366 KB PDF)

Enright, W.J. “Notes on the Aborigines of the North Coast of New South Wales.” in Mankind 2:4 (June 1937): 88-91. (299 KB PDF)


1940

McCarthy, F.D. “The Carved Trees of New South Wales” in The Australian Museum Magazine 7:5 (June-August 1940):161-166. (1.02 MB PDF)

McCarthy, F.D. “Aboriginal Stone Arrangements in Australia” in The Australian Museum Magazine 7:6 (Sept.1940):184 – 189. (627 KB PDF)

Enright, W.J. “Notes on the Aborigines of the North Coast of N.S.W.” in Mankind 2:9 (Oct 1940): 321-324. (329 KB PDF)

1943

McCarthy, F.D. and Davidson, F.A. “The Elouera Industry of Singleton, Hunter River, New South Wales” in Records of the Australian Museum 21:4 (1943) pp.210-230. (1.76 MB PDF)

Article entitled “Aborigines at Platt’s Estate A.L.P. Council Asks That They Remain” from the Newcastle Morning Herald, 6th September 1943 p.2. (194 KB PDF)

Article entitled “Attempt to Move Aborigines Aldermen Protest” from the Newcastle Morning Herald, 9th September 1943 p.2. (216 KB PDF)

Article entitled “Minister Calls for Report Blacks on Platt’s Estate” from the Newcastle Morning Herald, 4th October 1943 p.2. (226 KB PDF)

Article entitled “No Evictions Platt’s Estate Dwellers” from the Newcastle Morning Herald, 28th October 1943 p.2. (282 KB PDF)

Article entitled “Not Regarded as Objectionable Official View on Aborigines” from the Newcastle Morning Herald, 6th December 1943 p.2. (387 KB PDF)


1944

Article entitled “Native Skeleton on Beach” from the Newcastle Morning Herald, 8th January 1944 p.2. (384 KB PDF)


1947

McCarthy, F.D. “An Analysis of the Large Stone Implements from Five Workshops on the North Coast of New South Wales” in Records of the Australian Museum 21:8 (1947) pp.411-430. (1.87 MB PDF)


1949

Dixon, J. “The Ebenezer Coal Works” in Newcastle and Hunter District Historical Society Journal and Proceedings. Vol.3 Pt.10 (July 1949): 145-147. (283 KB PDF)

Stretch, Canon Carlos. Three newsclippings from Archives shelf location A7745(viii) Exercise book “Historical notes”:”Paintings in Caves by Aborigines: Primitive Designs of Hands Seen at Congewai” by Rene Crouch, Maitland Mercury 26th January 1949; “Primitive Paintings by Aborigines Widely Distributed Throughout Australian States” by R. Crouch, [Maitland Mercury?] 5th February 1949; “Aboriginal Paintings and Carvings” by F.J. Lynch, [Maitland Mercury?] [undated]. (531 KB PDF)


1950

Elkin, A.P. “Obituary: Mr W.J. Enright” in Mankind 4:4 (Feb 1950): 162 – 164. (243 KB PDF)


1953

Holmes, A.E. “The Breastplate of the ‘The King of Tanilba’” in Newcastle and Hunter District Historical Society Journal and Proceedings. Vol.7 Pt.12 (September 1953): 189-190. (317 KB PDF)


1962

University of Newcastle Opus. “Mud, Mush and Mosquitoes” Opus Visits the Shortland Site July-August 1962. Opus 58 (29th August 1962) Vol.9 No.8.pp.12-13. (934 KB PDF)


1964

Rye, Douglas. Article entitled “Massacre of Aborigines” in [Newcastle Morning Herald?] [c1964]. (112 KB PDF)[John Turner Papers P24]


1965

Watkins, Allan. “Extractions by the Road.” in Newcastle Morning Herald & Miners’ Advocate, 11 September 1965: p. 7 (153 KB gif image) [Courtesy of the Newcastle Herald] Story of Wells’ family Newcastle dentists and mention of Aboriginal King Billy and his white teeth.


1966

N. Gunson, ‘ Biraban (411 KB PDF) and `Threlkeld, Lancelot Edward‘ (526 KB PDF), in D. Pike (ed), Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 1, pp 102-04, and Volume 2, pp 528-30, Melbourne University Press. [With kind permission of Mr Niel Gunson and the editors of the Australian Dictionary of Biography]

Brayshaw, Helen C. Some Aspects of the Material Culture of the Aborigines of the Hunter Valley at the Time of First White Settlement in the Area. Thesis Submitted as part of the Requirements for an Honours Degree in History, 1966. [Courtesy of Dr Helen C. Brayshaw]

Introduction [559 KB PDF file]

Chapter 1. Nature and Influence of the Environment. [2.25 MB PDF file]

Chapter 2. Social Organization and Habits. [852 KB PDF file]

Chapter 3. Food Quest. [1.27 MB PDF file]

Chapter 4. Material Culture. [3.53 MB PDF file]

Chapter 5. Archaeology. [1.44 MB PDF file]

Chapter 6.Ceremonial Life. [1.71 MB PDF file]

Chapter 7. Spiritual Life. [761 KB PDF file]

Chapter 8. Artistic Life and Bibliography. [3.36 MB PDF file]

Letter of Permission [31.8 KB PDF file]


1969

Moore, David R. “The Prehistory of the Hunter River Valley” in Australian Natural History (March 1969):166-171. (858 KB PDF) [Courtesy Len Dyall]

Farrelly, Alan. “Aborigines in the Valley 5000 B.C.” in Newcastle Morning Herald & Miners’ Advocate, 31st May 1969. (143 KB PDF) [Courtesy of the Newcastle & Hunter District Historical Society]


1970

Moore, David R. “Results of an Archaeological Survey of the Hunter River Valley, New South Wales Part 1: The Bondaian Industry of the Upper Hunter and Goulburn River Valleys” in Records of the Australian Museum Vol. 28 No. 2 [Sydney August 27th 1970] pp.25-64 (2.63 MB PDF) [Courtesy Len Dyall]


1971

Dyall, L. “Aboriginal Occupation of the Newcastle Coastline” in Hunter Natural History Vol.3 No.2 (August 1971): 154-168. (1.67 MB PDF) [Courtesy Len Dyall]


1972

Dyall, L. “Aboriginal Occupation in the Dudley-Jewells Swamp Area” in Hunter Natural History Vol.4 No.3 (August 1972): 168-177. (1.61 MB PDF) [Courtesy Len Dyall]


1974

Threlkeld, L.E. Australian Reminiscences & Papers of L.E.Threlkeld, Missionary to the Aborigines, 1824-1859. 2 vols, ed. Niel Gunson. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies, 1974.


1975

Newsclippings relating to Aboriginal cave paintings ["Aborigines Had Artistic Love" in Hunter Valley Herald 13th March 1975 p.2] , Eric Taggart of Broke ["A Living Symbol of an Ancient Past" in Newcastle Morning Herald & Miners' Advocate, 13th March 1975], Kamilaroi, Tom Dillon grave at Sandgate Cemetery (last full blood Aborigine of the Hawkesbury River Tribe, the Darook) [c.1975] from A7771(vii). Some newsclippings are unreferenced. (1.03 MB PDF)

Sokoloff, Boris. “The Worimi: Hunter-Gatherers at Port Stephens Part VI Material Culture: Implements and Utensils” in Hunter Natural History (Nov 1975): 231-236. (260 KB PDF) [John Turner Papers P24 with kind permission Boris Sokoloff]


1976

Sokoloff, Boris. “The Worimi: Hunter-Gatherers at Port Stephens Part VIII Social and Ceremonial Aspects: Social Organisation” in Hunter Natural History (May 1976): 98-104. (455 KB PDF) [John Turner Papers P24 with kind permission Boris Sokoloff]


1977

Sokoloff, Boris. “Aboriginal Prehistory: Interpretation of Artefacts” in Hunter Natural History Vol.9 No.1 (February 1977): 19-26. (1.41 MB PDF) [Courtesy Boris Sokoloff]

Sokoloff, Boris. “The Worimi: Hunter-Gatherers at Port Stephens Part XIII Summary and Discussion” in Hunter Natural History (Nov 1977): 228-238. (488 KB PDF) [John Turner Papers P24 with kind permission Boris Sokoloff]


1978

Haslam, P. “History of Aborigines” from University News: Newsletter for the University of Newcastle. Vol. 4 No.3 (March 1978). (418 KB PDF)

Sokoloff, Boris. “Aborigines and Fire in the Lower Hunter Part 1: Importance of Fire for the Worimi and Awabakal” in Hunter Natural History Vol.10 No.2 (May 1978): 70-80. (2.30 MB PDF) [Courtesy Boris Sokoloff]

Sokoloff, Boris. “Aborigines and Fire in the Lower Hunter Part 2: Importance of Fire Cont. ” in Hunter Natural History Vol.10 No.3 (August 1978): 124-128 and 129-133 (1.97 MB PDF) [Courtesy Boris Sokoloff]

Sokoloff, Boris. “Aborigines and Fire in the Lower Hunter Part 3: Effects of Aborigines’ Use of Fire on the Natural Environment.” in Hunter Natural History Vol.10 No.4 (November 1978): 192-197. (764 KB PDF) [Courtesy Boris Sokoloff]

Horner, Jack. “Bantagran and the Hunter River” in Aboriginal News Vol.3 No.5 (1978):18. (248KB PDF) [Courtesy of Mr Jack Horner]


1980

Dyall, L. ‘Aboriginal Fishing Stations on the Newcastle Coastline, New South Wales’ in Sandra Bowdler (ed.) Coastal Archaeology in Eastern Australia: Proceedings of the 1980 Valla Conference on Australian Prehistory: Canberra: Australian National University, 1982. pp.52-62. (730 KB PDF) [Courtesy Len Dyall]


1981

Bramble, Christine W. Relations between Aborigines and White Settlers in Newcastle and the Hunter District 1804-1841 with special reference to the influence of the penal establishment. Dissertation submitted as part of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Letters in History at the University of New England. January 1981. [4.24MB PDF] Made available for download with the kind permission of the Author.


1984

Haslam, P. “A Woman’s Place in Aboriginal Society” in Newcastle and Hunter District Historical Society Journal and Proceedings. Vol.12 Pt.1 (March 1984): 11-12. (281 KB PDF)

Dyall, Len. Two articles on the pre-history of the Hunter valley Aborigines, “Piecing together the past” and “The Birubi Aboriginal Site” in Newcastle Morning Herald & Miners’ Advocate, 9th July 1984 and 16th July 1984 respectively. (197 KB PDF) [Newcastle & Hunter District Historical Society and Len Dyall]

Aborigines of the Hunter Region [ Kit] Newcastle, N.S.W.] : Dept. of Education, Hunter Region ; [Newcastle, N.S.W.?] : Hunter Social Studies Association ; [Sydney, N.S.W.?] : Ministry for Aboriginal Affairs, New South Wales, [1984?]. Containing 7 booklets (ill. ; 34 cm.), 10 prints (b&w ; 21 x 30 cm.), notes (9 p. ; 34 cm.), 45 slides (mostly col.), 1 sound cassette (50 min.) + in 1 folder, 36×26 cm


1986

Brayshaw, Helen. Aborigines of the Hunter Valley : a study of colonial records. Scone, N.S.W. : Scone & Upper Hunter Historical Society, 1986. [9 MB PDF file] [Courtesy of Dr Helen Brayshaw]

Maaiangal Ngura (Clan) of the Worimi Nation. Newsclipping “‘Charlie’ coming home to final resting place” by Vera Bertola. Newcastle Herald 31st October 1986 p.5. [96.7 KB PDF file]


1987

Robinson, Roland. “Review of Aborigines of the Hunter Valley – A Study of Colonial Records”, by Helen Brayshaw; Scone and Upper Hunter Historical Society. Newcastle Herald, 3rd January 1987. (269 KB PDF)


1988

Schneider, Robin. Article entitled “Man’s dogged paperchase unearths historical treasures”. Newcastle Herald, 5th May 1988. (117 KB PDF)

Article entitled “Aborigines ‘unaware’ of area’s ancient treasures” in Newcastle Herald, 25th August 1988. (109 KB PDF) [Newcastle & Hunter District Historical Society]


1989

Scanlon, Mike. Article entitled “Old photos revive mystery of Aboriginal artefacts”. Newcastle Herald, 17th April 1989. (78.3 KB PDF) [Newcastle & Hunter District Historical Society with kind permission Mike Scanlon].

Scanlon, Mike. Article entitled “Convict relics ‘pale into insignificance’ beside region’s Koori culture”. Newcastle Herald, 14th July 1989. (102 KB PDF) [Newcastle & Hunter District Historical Society with kind permission Mike Scanlon].

Robinson, Helen. Article entitled “The Bahtabah Aboriginal Land Council is giving the public a rare opportunity to better understand one of the world’s oldest cultures”. Newcastle Herald, 29th July 1989. (395 KB PDF) [Newcastle & Hunter District Historical Society].


1990

Maaiangal Ngura (Clan) of the Worimi Nation. Newsclipping “Worimis to preserve and record history” by Jenny Hawke. Port Stephens Examiner 24th October 1990 p.12. (139 KB PDF)

Doherty, Linda. Article entitled “Bushranger Jimmy Governor may save Upper Hunter towns.” Newcastle Herald 20th August 1990 p.2. (59 KB PDF)


1991

Maaiangal Ngura (Clan) of the Worimi Nation. Newsclipping “Fond memories of ‘humpy’ days” by Sally Croxton. Newcastle Morning Herald 8th July 1991 pp.1 and 3. (142 KB PDF)

Vass, Nathan. Article entitled “Burning Mountain keeps glowing after 500,000 years on fire.” [Newcastle Herald?] 22nd February 1991. (72 KB PDF)


1992

Hughes, Dominic. Newsclipping “Search is on for evidence of Hunter’s Originals”. Newcastle Herald 30th July 1992. (47 KB PDF)

Raven, Marjorie. Rev. Lancelot Edward Threlkeld. We sincerely thank Mrs Marjorie Raven, great grand daughter of the late Reverend Lancelot Threlkeld for her permission to publish her biographical article prepared in August 1992.


1993

Maaiangal Ngura (Clan) of the Worimi Nation. Five newsclippings relating to Mambo Creek Wetlands, Wanda Avenue Soldiers Point, Aboriginal studies in Nelson Bay Public School and Aboriginal flag. (485 KB PDF)

Ray, Greg. Article on Wollombi Hand Stencils. Newcastle Herald 31st March 1993. (1.38 MB PDF) [Newcastle & Hunter District Historical Society with kind permission Greg Ray].

Ray, Greg. The Aboriginal Hunter. Supplement to The Newcastle Herald Tuesday May 11 1993.


1994

Maaiangal Ngura (Clan) of the Worimi Nation. Twenty-Two newsclippings relating to reconciliation in Port Stephens, Koori studies, bush tucker, racism and murder, Salamander Bay development Wanda Avenue and Mambo Creek sites, sacred sites, bandicoots, Tomaree, wetlands.(2.67 MB PDF)


1995

Maaiangal Ngura (Clan) of the Worimi Nation. Nine newsclippings relating to vandalism of cave sites, Aboriginal heritage, Salamander Mambo Creek and Wanda Avenue sites, Tomaree National Park. (1.47 MB PDF)


1996

Di Gravio, Gionni. Guide to the Collections relating to Aboriginal History and Culture. University of Newcastle Archives Rare Books & Special Collections, Auchmuty Library, 1996.

Austin, Peter and Nathan, David. Kamilaroi/Gamilaraay Web Dictionary.


1997

Maaiangal Ngura (Clan) of the Worimi Nation. Nine newsclippings relating to Native title claim on Bagnall’s Beach, housing, eco-tourism, Koori tours, Wanda, Worimi Women’s Waterhole, massacres. (614 KB PDF)


1998

Leon, Mick. History of the Worimi People. [Tobwobba Website]

Heath, John. “Muloobinbah” in C. Hunter (ed.) Riverchange. Newcastle: Newcastle Region Public Library, 1998. pp.37 – 73.[Courtesy of John Heath] (3.91 MB PDF)

Maaiangal Ngura (Clan) of the Worimi Nation. Four newsclippings relating to Aboriginal heritage, destruction of Aboriginal middens, massacres. (922 KB PDF)


1999

Smith, Michael. Worimi Tribe of Port Stephens. [Michael Smith's Website]

University of Newcastle Library. Yallarwah Place – An Act of Reconciliation in the Hunter Region, Australia. Story of the official opening of Yallawah Place on Friday 19th February 1999.[Cultural Collections Unit Website]

Maaiangal Ngura (Clan) of the Worimi Nation. Three newsclippings relating to decline of fish stocks off Port Stephens, Wanda land at Salamander Bay. (259 KB PDF)


2000

Maynard, John. Whose Traditional Land? Yutilliko (Awobokal -”To Guide”) [Report to ascertain the traditional owners of the land now occupied by the Callaghan Campus of the University of Newcastle]. [Wollotuka site]

Albrecht, Glenn. “Rediscovering the Coquun: Towards an Environmental History of the Hunter River”. Address given at the River Forum 2000 at Wyndham Estate, Hunter River; by Glenn Albrecht PhD.

University of Newcastle Library. Guide to the Collections Relating to Aboriginal History and Culture. University of Newcastle Archives Rare Books & Special Collections, Auchmuty Library. (729 KB PDF)

Guide to the Norman B. Tindale Archives – Published by the South Australian Museum.

Maaiangal Ngura (Clan) of the Worimi Nation. A Scrapbook containing Brochures, News Clippings and Articles throughout the year 2000 relating to Stockton Bight. (1.00 MB PDF)

Deacon, Vera. “Aborigines at Platt’s Estate: Attempts to move Aborigines” in Wurrecker: Newsletter of the Newcastle Aboriginal Support Group. No.122 (April 2000): 4-5. (233 KB PDF) [Courtesy of Mrs Vera Deacon with kind permission of Newcastle Aboriginal Support Group.]


2001

Maaiangal Ngura (Clan) of the Worimi Nation. Press Release: Stockton Bight – Port Stephens – Maaiangal Aboriginal Heritage Inc. Traditional Worimi Custodians (68 KB PDF)

Maaiangal Ngura (Clan) of the Worimi Nation. Two newsclippings relating to appointment of Carol Ridgeway-Bissett to Reconciliation Council and Mixed Mobs Exhibition. (153 KB PDF)


2002

Deacon, Vera.”Tirrikiba: Place of Flame, Messages, Memories.” [Typescript] (530 KB PDF) (Courtesy Vera Deacon)

AWABA An electronic database and guide to the history, culture and language of the Aboriginal peoples of the Newcastle and Lake Macquarie region of NSW. Awaba is the product of collaboration between the University’s School of Liberal Arts and Wollotuka School of Aboriginal Studies, in partnership with representatives of the Awabakal Aboriginal community.


2004

Dyall, L. K. The Aboriginal Middens at Birubi: An account of surface collections (1964-1977) on the Aboriginal site at Birubi, near Port Stephens, New South Wales, and its subsequent excavations in 1978 and 1979. [5.38MB PDF] [Read Only Online Version Courtesy of Len Dyall]

El-Hakim, S., Picard, M., & Fryer, J. (2004). Modelling and Visualisation of Aboriginal Rock Art in The Baiame Cave. Powerpoint Presentation. (11.7 MB ppt file) (Contains embedded 3D Movie Representation of Baiame Cave).

El-Hakim, S., Fryer, J. et al (2004). Aboriginal Rock Art in the Baiame Cave. (57 MB wmv file) 3D Movie Representation of the Baiame Cave.

For the theoretical background relating to the digital capture of such imagery please see the paper by Sabry El-Hakim (2006) and Chandler et al (2007 below. These illustrative ground breaking 3D innovative materials have been kindly provided with permission from Emeritus Professor John Fryer.


2005

Brayshaw, Helen. (2005). “On Revisiting Gundy: a meeting of history and archaeology”. From Many exchanges : archaeology, history, community and the work of Isabel McBryde / edited by Ingereth Macfarlane with Mary-Jane Mountain and Robert Paton, Section 2, Chapter 20, 2005, pp. 227-248 File size : 752.79 KB


2006

El-Hakim, S. (2006). “A Sequential Approach to Capture Fine Geometric Details from Images”. IAPRS Volume XXXVI, Part 5, Dresden 25-27 September 2006. (6.74 MB PDF)


2007

Fossil Pine Forest, Lake Macquarie. Compiled by Michael Organ. With assistance from John Byrnes. 5 June 2007. [Online Version University of Wollongong. Thank you to Mr Shane Frost for bringing this to our attention - GDG]

Chandler, J., Bryan, P. & Fryer, J. (2007). The Development and Application of a Simple Methodology for Recording Rock Art using Consume-Grade Digital Cameras. The Photogrammetric Record 22 (117): 10-21 (March 2007)


2008

Fryer, John. Where was Reverend Threlkeld’s First Mission House at Belmont? A Report prepared for Mr Doug Lithgow, A Freeman of the City of Newcastle. February 2008. (764 KB PDF)


2009

Jones, Garry. Yengo Country – a source of cultural & spiritual awakening (2.12MB pdf file)

Garry Jones 1993 / 2009 Dip. Art (Educ.), First Class Hons.; M.A. (Studio Art), New York Univ. Acknowledging the input of Peter Crousen, fieldwork partner from 1978 onwards, along with that of Paul Gordon, our Aboriginal brother (Nyampah language group, Wongaipuon dialect, Galugeilu ‘stone people’ clan), 1989 onwards.


2010

Ford, Geoffrey Eric. Darkiñung Recognition An Analysis of the Historiography for the Aborigines from the Hawkesbury-Hunter Ranges to the Northwest of Sydney: [commonly written with English characters as 'Darkinung', Darkinyung or Darkinjung]
University of Sydney. School of Philosophical and Historical Inquiry (Online Thesis)

Darkiñung Recognition – Full Thesis Download [11.2 MB PDF]

Chapters of particular interest to Hunter Region are the following:

Darkiñung Recognition Chapter 8 – [492 KB PDF]

Darkiñung Recognition Chapter 9 – [819 KB PDF]

These digital files are provided courtesy of  the author Geoffrey Eric Ford.

Blyton, Greg. “Smoking Kills: The Introduction of Tobacco Smoking into Aboriginal Society with a particular focus on the Hunter Region of Central Eastern New South Wales from 1800 to 1850.” International Journal of Critical Indigenous Studies, Volume 3, Number 2, 2010. (Courtesy of Dr Greg Blyton and International Journal of Critical Indigenous Studies)


2011


2012

Blyton, Greg. “Aboriginal Guides of the Hunter Region 1800-1850: A Case Study in Indigenous Labour History“. History Australia Vol.9, No. 3 (2012) or Aboriginal Guides of the Hunter Region 1800-1850 (Courtesy of Dr Greg Blyton and History Australia)


2013

Blyton, Greg and Ramsland, John. “Mixed-race unions and Indigenous demography in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales, 1788-1850.” (Courtesy of Dr Greg Blyton and Professor John Ramsland)

2 thoughts on “Dreaming

  1. Pingback: New theory for location of 1820 Lycett Painting « UoN Cultural Collections

  2. Pingback: Origins of King Edward Park | Coal River Working Party

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